Bariatric surgery

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Bariatric surgery

Vertical Stomach Resection Surgery

Stomach resection surgery (sleeve gastrectomy, vertical gastroplasty, vertical gastrectomy) provides with less weight loss than gastric bypass surgery. However, technically gastric resection is easier to perform and allows avoiding several specific complications that are associated with bypass surgery.

How is the resection surgery performed?

The sleeve gastrectomy is based on the principle of restriction when the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract is narrowed in order to limit the amount of incoming food. Thus, a stomach is formed as a narrow tube similar to a sleeve, that makes the solid food harder to pass starting from the esophagus until the antrum (or end) of the stomach. A stomach is turned from a sack into a tube in which food does not remain for a long period of time and passes down to the intestines. During a sleeve gastrectomy a major part (85%) of the stomach is removed and a tube of 2-2.5 cm in diameter is formed. The secretory function of the stomach is decreased as well, but this becomes an advantage for weight loss.

bariatric surgery in progress, photo #1

For whom is the resection surgery indicated?

Sleeve stomach resection is suitable, first of all, for those patients with BMI below 45 kg/m2 , or in cases when gastric bypass surgery is technically difficult to perform due to adhesions of the small intestine.

Advantages of the stomach resection surgery:

  • Sleeve resection surgery is technically easier than stomach bypass surgery
  • It is less traumatic as it leaves the small intestine intact
  • The risk of iron, vitamin, minerals and different protein deficiency is minimal
  • It is suitable for patients with type II diabetes mellitus as the surgery helps to liquidate it

Outcomes of the stomach resection surgery:

  • Fast and effective weight loss. The patients lose, in average, 59% of excessive weight within a year
  • According to the researchers, 60% of the lost weight is not regained within 10-14 years after surgery
  • The most part of the diseases associated with obesity (type II diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, depression, back aches) decrease significantly or even discontinue after the surgery
  • Fast satiety and meal enjoyment that decreases the will of eating often
  • Improvement of social function, wellbeing and healthy self-esteem
  • No restrictions for physical activities, hobbies and choice of profession

Possible risks of the stomach resection surgery:

Sleeve resection surgery has a higher surgical risk. This is due to necessity of removing the most part of the stomach.

  • First few times after the surgery food passage can be impeded which may cause discomfort
  • Pain syndrome is more prominent in the post-operative period of time due to greater surgical trauma
  • Heartburn may appear in approx. 30% of cases

In order to avoid complications the patient should follow the surgeon’s instructions regarding lifestyle as well as agree on regular check-up visits with his/her general practitioner. The physician provides more information about post-operative risks during the first consult.

bariatric surgery in progress, photo #2

Stomach Bypass Surgery

Stomach bypass surgery is a stomach resection surgery and is considered to be a “golden standard” in treating severe stages of obesity.

Stomach Bypass (Shunt) Surgery

A new, smaller stomach of 30-50 mL is formed from the upper part of the stomach. It is then merged with the medial part of small intestine. As a result, feeling of satiety is achieved faster, and the amount of absorbed nutrients and calories is decreased.

For whom is stomach bypass surgery indicated?

  • Your Body Mass Index (BMI) is over 40 (obesity stage III or morbid obesity);
  • Your BMI is over 35 and you have diseases associated with obesity, such as type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension or severe sleep apnea;
  • In some cases the surgery is indicated for patients with BMI of 30 to 34 when there are severe health problems due to excessive weight.

Advantages of stomach bypass surgery:

  • The amount of received food per meal is decreased;
  • Less food is absorbed;
  • The patient develops a negative attitude to a greater amount of products he/she should not be eating;

Outcomes of stomach bypass surgery:

  • Fast and effective weight loss. The patients lose, in average, 77% of excessive weight within a year
  • According to the researchers, 60% of the lost weight is not regained within 10-14 years after surgery
  • The most part of the diseases associated with obesity (type II diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, depression, back aches) decrease significantly or even discontinue after the surgery
  • The patient feels satiety and meal enjoyment from small amounts of food
  • The patient develops a healthy self-esteem and feels good
  • No restrictions for physical activities, hobbies and choice of profession

bariatric surgery in progress, photo #3

Risks of stomach bypass surgery

Currently, stomach bypass surgery has been approved as one of the most effective best surgeries in a long-term prospective among all types of weight decreasing surgeries, although, as many other surgeries, it has risks the atient should be informed about. Possible post-operative complications include the following:

  • Dumping syndrome
  • Iron deficiency and associated iron deficiency or chronic anaemia. To avoid this condition, the patient should use vitamins and minerals as supplements daily according to the physician’s recommendations
  • Osteoporosis, as the body may lack ions of calcium. In this case it is necessary to take supplements that contain calcium
  • Formation of gallstones

In order to avoid complications the patient should follow the surgeon’s instructions regarding lifestyle as well as agree on regular check-up visits with his/her general practitioner. The physician provides more information about post-operative risks during the first consult.

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